Date: 8th May 2015; 18th Rajab 1436
Acquiring knowledge is a Farz (Obligation) upon the Muslim Ummah rather than considering it as a Sunnah. Hadith says:
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “The seeking of knowledge is obligatory for every Muslim.”
References: Jami At-Tirmidhi, Hadith 74
Islam continuously demands us to acquire knowledge so that we get the track towards the Straight Path. There are some Farz knowledge on which all of us are expected to be acquainted. If we don’t hold those knowledge we need to give that account of our ignorance to Allah.
Knowledge about Salah, Wudu, Fasting and Ghusl are some of the obligatory knowledges. It is shameful for us as parents for not teaching them to our children properly. Allah will also inquire about the commitment of the parents into teaching the Deen to their children. Allah does not want all of us be turned into Alems as not all of us of capable of turning into one. For one neighbourhood, one alem is enough for the Masjid.
The most necessary knowledge is also unknown by us. The Kalima Shahadat we recite when we embrace Islam.
“Ash hadu an la ilaha ill Allah wa ash hadu anna Muhammadar Rasul Allah”
Translation: “I declare there is no god but Allah and I declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”
The Kalimas are so powerful at even when people who have sinned throughout their life can enter Paradise upon uttering it before their death. Hadith states:
Uthman ibn `Affan (Radi Allahu Anhu) said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saying: “Verily, I know a phrase which no servant utters truthfully from his heart except the Fire is made unlawful for him.” `Umar ibn al-Khattab (Radi Allahu Anhu) said: “I shall tell you what that phrase is. It is the kalima of sincerity with which Allah has empowered Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and his Companions, the kalima of fear of Allah which Allah’s Prophet enjoined upon his uncle Abu Talib on his deathbed: the witnessing that there is no god but Allah.”
Reference: Musnad of of Imam Ahmad (Rahmatullah Allaih)
Someone in our family lineage took the burden into uttering the Shahadat and becoming a Muslim. For us being born Muslims, our burden is a lot more as we need to carry forward the knowledge of our ancestors.
This week’s Khutbah is dedicated towards Ghusl and some other Masaila upon cleaning ourselves when we encounter a major impurity. It is sorrowful to see that parents these days shy away from teaching these to their children because this needs to be known by every Muslim.
For cleansing in times of major impurity there are three Farz which needs to be taken into account when doing the Ghusl.
The 3 Farz of Ghusl are as follows:
- Form the intention to purify oneself from impurity: Janabah (impurity following sexual discharge), menses or nifas (postpartum bleeding).
- Rinse the mouth and nose. Rinsing the mouth (madmada) and cleaning the nose by inhaling and exhaling water (istinshâq) are obligatory acts for both Wudû’ and Ghusl. This is because washing the face is obligatory in both Wudû’ and Ghusl and these acts constitute part of the washing of the face. This is the position of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Rahmatullah Allaih) and the official ruling of the Hanbalî school of thought. A number of other scholars have adopted this opinion as well. However, this is the strongest opinion.
- Wash the entire body with water once, making sure that the water reaches the roots of the hair and the places that it cannot reach easily, such as the armpits and backs of the knees.
Sometimes when we do Ghusl, we forget to rinse our mouth and nose, however, this is considered to be a Farz in a Ghusl and a person can’t be considered pure if misses out these important acts.
As for the complete form of Ghusl as performed by the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), it is as follows:
- Form the intention in the heart to purify oneself from major impurity: Janabah (impurity following sexual discharge), menses or nifas (postpartum bleeding).
- Then say Bismillah and wash the hands three times, then wash any dirt from the private part.
- Then do Wudu as for prayer, a complete Wudu.
- Then pour water over the head three times, and rub the hair so that the water reaches the roots of the hair.
- Then wash the body, making sure that the water reaches all parts, starting with the right side of the body and then the left, and rubbing it with the hands so that the water reaches the entire body.
The evidence for this mustahabb form of ghusl is:
It was narrated that Aishah (Radi Allahu Anha) said: When the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) did ghusl for Janabah, he would wash his hands and do wudoo’ as for prayer, then he would wash himself, then he would run his fingers through his hair, then when he thought that it [the water] had reached his skin, he would pour water over it [the head] three times, then he would wash the rest of his body.
References: Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 248 & Sahih Muslim, Hadith 316
It was narrated that Aishah (Radi Allahu Anha) said: When the Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) did ghusl from Janabah, he would call for something like a vessel used for milking and take water in his palm. He started with the right side of his head, then the left, then he took water in both palms and poured it all over his head.
References: Sahih al-Bukhari, Hadith 258 & Sahih Muslim, Hadith 318
After performing Wudu a person does not need to perform Wudu once more.
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (Rahmatullah Allaih): If a person is in a state of Janabah and he does Ghusl, then that is sufficient and he does not need to do Wudu, because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves.
Surah Al-Maidah, Ayah 6 (5:6) Translation: Sahih International
There is no need to repeat wudoo’ after doing ghusl. But if one of the things that break wudoo’ takes place, and he breaks his wudoo’ after doing ghusl, then he must do wudoo’ But if he does not break his wudoo’ then his doing ghusl from Janabah takes the place of wudoo’, whether he did wudoo’ before doing ghusl or not. But it is essential to pay attention to rinsing the mouth and nose, because doing so is essential in both wudoo’ and ghusl. End quote.
Reference: Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 11/question no. 180.
For women, the method of Ghusl as those for men but there are some additional issues.
Women who have braids can do Ghusl without having to undo their hair if they are in Janabah (sexual impurity).
Umm Salamah (Radi Allahu Anha), who said: “I said, “O Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), I am a woman who wears her hair in braids. Do I have to undo my braids when I make Ghusl because of janabah? He said, “No, it is enough if you pour water on your head three times, and then over the rest of your body. That will make you clean.”
Reference: Sahih Muslim, Hadith 497
However if they are impure due to menstruation or Nifas (post natal bleeding) then they should open their hair before doing Ghusl.
Narrated Aishah (Radi Allahu Anha): In the last Hajj of Allah’s Apostle (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), I assume the Ihram for Hajj along with Allah Apostle. I was one of those who intended Tamattu’ (to perform Hajj an ‘Umra) and did not take the Hadi (animal for sacrifice) with me. I got my menses and was not clean till the night of ‘Arafa I said, “O Allah’s Apostle (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam)! It is the night of the day of ‘Arafat and I intended to perform the Hajj Tamattu’ with ‘Umra Allah’s Apostle (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) told me to undo my hair and comb it and to postpone the ‘Umra. I did the same and completed the Hajj. On the night of Al-Hasba (i.e. place outside Mecca where the pilgrims go after finishing all the ceremonies Hajj at Mina) he (the Prophet ordered ‘Abdur Rahman (Aishah’s brother) to take me to At-Tan’im to assume the lhram for ‘Umra in lieu of that of Hajj-at Tamattu’ which I had intended to perform
References: Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 6, Hadith Number 313
Also if the Muslim female is making ghusl after the end of her menstruation or Nifas (post Natal bleeding ) then after the Ghusl she should take a piece a cloth perfumed with musk and clean the private parts with it thrice.
Narrated ‘Aishah (Radi Allahu Anha): An Ansari woman asked the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) how to take a bath after finishing from the menses. He replied, “Take a piece a cloth perfumed with musk and clean the private parts with it thrice.” The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) felt shy and turned his face. So pulled her to me and told her what the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) meant.
References: Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 6, Number 312
With regards to the cleaning of nose and ear piercing for women, during an obligatory Ghusl, one must ensure that water flows through the piercing of both the nose and ears; in fact, any hole in the body that has not closed, in order for the Ghusl to be complete. If the nose ring or the earring is so tight that water doesn’t reach under the ring except by moving or removing it, then doing so is obligatory. However, if the ring is such that water is able to reach the hole without having to move or remove it, then one need not remove the ring.
It is stated Maraqi al-Falah: ‘It is obligatory to wash [in Ghusl] any hole that has not closed due to the nonexistence of hardship [in doing so].’
Reference: Maraqi al-Falah with Tahtawi, Page 102
Imam Ibn Nujaym (Rahmatullah Allaih) stated: ‘It is necessary to move [during Ghusl] an earring and finger ring that is tight. If one is not wearing the earring, and hence, water is able to reach the piercing by merely allowing to flow over it, then this is sufficient, otherwise it is necessary to make water enter the piercing. However, there is no need to inconvenience one’s self by pushing something besides water into the piercing, such as a needle and the like.’
Reference: Al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, 1/47
As for when performing a ritual ablution (wudu), water needs to flow only through the piercing of the nose in the manner explained above.
After sexual intercourse, let us discuss how to get the clothes clean when impurities get brushed on them. This is a complex topic as there are a lot of scholarly opinions but let’s discuss the basics.
Before understanding how the clothes should be cleaned, let us discuss the different types of impurities. Broadly there are two forms of impurities related to sexual discharge:
- Maniy– The semen discharged. This is the thick fluid which appears during sexual intercourse.
- Madhi– This is the thin fluid which appears in times of sexual arousal.
Maniy is Taahir (pure) according to the one of the opinion among the scholars. The evidence for this are reports of ‘Aishah (Radi Allahu Anha).
Aishah (Radi Allahu Anha) said, speaking about semen: “I would simply rub it off the clothes of Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and he would pray in them.” In another narration, she said: “I used to, if it was dry, scrape it off his clothes with my nail.”
References: Both of these Hadîths are related in Sahih Muslim. The first narration is also related in Jami at-Tirmidhi, Sunan Abî Dâwûd, Sunan al-Nasâ’î, Sunan Ibn Mâjah, Sunan al-Bayhaqî, Sunan al-Dâraqutnî, and other sources.
These Hadîths bring up the question of whether semen is a pure or impure substance. This is a famous point of disagreement among scholars who are divided into two opinions.
The first opinion is that semen is impure and must be removed from a person’s clothing and body before that person can pray. This is the verdict of the Mâlikî and Hanafî schools of thought. It is also one of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Rahmatullah Allaih)’s opinions and the preferred view of al-Shawkânî.
They argue that washing is unnecessary except when there has been contaminated by something impure. The fact that he used to wash the semen from his clothing is evidence that it is impure. The same can be said for rubbing and scraping it off. It still shows that the semen has to be removed. If an impure substance is removed from something by whatever means, that thing becomes pure. Islamic Law shows leniency when it comes to the removal of impurities that are commonplace and difficult to avoid. Therefore, it is not surprising that Islamic Law would suffice with rubbing and scraping as a means for removing semen from clothing. Likewise, Islamic Law shows leniency with the urine of an infant boy, allowing a person to sprinkle water on it instead of having to wash it off. Some scholars also allow water to be sprinkled on clothing soiled by pre-seminal fluid. There are many other similar rulings in Islamic Law. They also argue that the ejaculation of semen places a person in a state of major ritual impurity whereby that person is required to take a full bath. Any substance that causes a person to enter into a state of ritual impurity if it comes out of a person’s body should be considered a physically impure substance.
Some scholars compare semen to other filthy substances produced by the body, like urine and feces, which are inarguably impure. By analogy, semen should take the same ruling, since it is also a filthy substance produced by the body. Another argument advanced by some scholars is that semen comes out of the same orifice that urine does, so it should take the same ruling. Some jurists cite statements attributed to various Companions like Ibn Abbâs, Abû Hurayrah, Umar and Ibn Masud (Radi Allahu Anhum) to the effect that semen must be washed off of what it touches. They also cite this Hadîth:
Mu`âwiyah ibn. Abu Sufyan asked the Prophet’s wife Umm Habibah (Radi Allahu Anha): “Did Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) pray in the same clothing that he wore while having sexual relations?” She replied: “Yes, if he saw no spoilage upon it.”
References: Sunan Abî Dâwûd, Sunan al-Nasâ’î, Sunan Ibn Mâjah, and other sources. Imam Al-Albânî (Rahmatullah Allaih) classifies it as an authentic hadîth in his assessment of Sunan Abî Dâwûd [al-Albânî, Sahîh Abî Dâwûd (1/74)]
The scholars who consider semen to be an impure substance argue that Umm Habîbah (Radi Allahu Anha) referred to semen as “spoilage”. Moreover, they argue, she made it clear that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) would not pray in clothing that was so spoiled. This can only be because semen is impure.
So clothes contaminated by Maniy should be washed in the same manner just like the clothe contaminated by Madhi. Moreover Allah says in the Quran:
O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by wearing your clean clothes), while praying and going round (the Tawaf of ) the Ka’bah, and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not Al-Musrifun (those who waste by extravagance).
Surah Al-A’raf, Ayah 31 (7:31) Translation: Muhsin Khan
The second opinion put forward by scholars about semen is that it is a pure substance. This is the position of the Shâfi school of thought. It is the more accurate of the two opinions attributed to Ahmad (Rahmatullah Allaih). It is also the view held by Ahl al-Hadîth and by the Zâhirî school of thought. A number of Companions held this view, as stated by Imam an-Nawawî (Rahmatullah Allaih) in his commentary on Sahîh Muslim. It is also the preferred opinion of Ibn Taymiyyah (Rahmatullah Allaih), Ibn al-Qayyîm (Rahmatullah Allaih), al-San`ânî, and others.
Ibn Hibbân (Rahmatullah Allaih) writes: “`Aishah used to wash the semen off the garment of Allah’s Messenger (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) if it was moist and scratch it off if it was dry merely as a matter of personal preference, and the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) would pray in that garment. Therefore, we hold the view that moist semen should be washed off as a matter of preference and not because it is impure. It is sufficient to scratch it off if it is dry in accordance with the Sunnah.” [al-Ihsân (4/221)]
The Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) used to extract the semen from his garment with the help of a small, fragrant weed and then pray wearing the garment. If the semen was dry, he would simply rub it off his garment and then pray wearing it.
References: Musnad Ahmad (6/243), Sahîh Ibn Khuzaymah (294), Sunan al-Bayhaqî (2/418) and others] This hadîth is graded as good by al-Albânî (Rahmatullah Allaih) and al-A`zamî (Rahmatullah Allaih). It is also graded as good by al-Sa`âtî. [Fath al-Rabbânî (1/250)]
On the basis of this evidence, the opinion that semen is a pure substance shows itself to be the more correct of the two opinions. There is not only direct evidence to support the purity of semen, but such a ruling is in accordance with the general presumption of purity that is a principle of Islamic Law. There is also no authentic and clear evidence to indicate anything to the contrary. We do not even have a statement of one of the Companions expressing the opinion that semen is impure. Those among the Companions who stated that it should be washed off were referring to a matter of preference and were not saying that semen is impure.
It is preferable to clean semen off of one’s body and one’s clothing. This is what the action of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) indicates, since he never commanded us to do so. The Hadîth indicates the simplicity and humility of our Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) in his manner of dressing. He would pray in the same garment that he wore while engaging in sexual relations. This means that he had in his possession no other article of clothing to pray in that was any better, since Allah commands us to wear our best to prayer. The Hadîth gives us an example of how a wife should care for her husband. We see how `A’ishah paid attention to small, personal matters like cleaning off the spots from her husband’s clothing. She did not disdain doing such things.
The Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) used to give concession regarding the cleaning of clothes when it comes to Maniy impurity as the Sahabahs used to lack in the possession of clothes. For us, it is best to clean the clothes properly, despite the state of the impurity.
Let us discuss how to deal with clothes possessing Madhi impurity which is in fact the best way of cleaning off an impure clothe.
Madhī is a clear thin fluid which emits due to sexual arousal. A person’s body contaminated with Madhi does not need to perform Ghusl. Hadith states:
Narrated Sahl ibn Hunayf (Radi Allahu Anhu): I felt greatly distressed by the frequent flowing of prostatic fluid. For this reason I used to take a bath very often. I asked the Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) about this. He replied: Ablution will be sufficient for you because of this. I asked: Apostle of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam), what should I do if it smears my clothes. He replied: It is sufficient if you take a handful of water and sprinkle it on your clothe when you find it has smeared it.
Reference: Sunan Abu Dawood, Purification (Kitab Al-Taharah), Hadith 210.
Madhi is called Najasat e Ghalizah which means it is impure. In principle:
- If clothes are soiled with Madhi which is equal or less than the hollow of one’s palm (which approximately has a diameter of 2.75cm) then Salah in such clothes will be valid but Makrooh-e-Tanzihi (undesirable).
- If it is more than the hollow of one’s palm, then to read Salaat with such clothes will be Makrooh-e-Tahreemi (reprehensible).
- One needs to wash the soiled portion three times before it becomes pure. If the soiled portion is not known then one needs to wash the whole clothe. The impure clothes need to be washed separately from all other clothes
- Madhi does not become pure by drying. If one know that there was madhi which seeped into the clothing and dried, one will have to wash the soiled portion three times. One do not need to dry the clothes to give it a second wash. After the first wash squeeze the water out, and wash the clothes for the second time. In this manner wash the soiled portion of the clothes three times.
- If water splashes onto the body when cleaning the clothes, the person needs to do Wudu for getting pure. The residue water must be thrown away without making any further use of it as the water has become impure after the wash. When clothes are washed in ponds or rivers, it does not make the water body impure.
In for women when menstrual blood contaminates the clothing, the ruling is mentioned in this Hadith:
Asmâ’ bint Abû Bakr (Radi Allahu Anha) relates that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said regarding menstrual blood that gets on one’s clothing: “Scratch it off, then rub it off with water, then sprinkle (the area) with water.”
References: Sahih al-Bukhari & Sahih Muslim
There are two opinions based on this.
The first way is applying water to the contaminated zone. The way a woman cleans menstrual blood off her clothing is as follows: First, she scratches the blood off, thus separating it from the cloth. Then she wets her thumb and her forefinger and uses them to squeeze it out. Finally, she sprinkles water over the area.
Al-Qurtubî expresses his preference for this view in his commentary on Sahîh Muslim. He writes: This is because the washing away of the blood occurs by squeezing it out. Then she sprinkles water over it on account of the doubt that some of it might have remained on the clothing. [al-Mufhim (2/848-649)]
The second view is that the word “nadh”(word mentioned in the Arabic Hadith) here indicates washing. This is the opinion preferred by al-Khâtâbî, Ibn Hajar [Fath al-Bârî(1/331)], and al-Nawawî [Sharh Sahîh Muslim (3/199-200)].
They support this interpretation by citing other narrations where the washing is mentioned outright. This opinion is also in accordance with a general principle in matters of purification that impurities should be washed off with water.
This is by far the ways we can clean ourselves in times of impurity and also getting our clothes cleaned in times when impurities contaminate our clothes. May Allah grant us with knowledge which will enrich our daily living, Ameen.